2.1 Gallbladder mucosa. Glandular epithelium (white arrows) and basophilic lamina propria (purple arrows)  due to presence of inflammatory cells with little cytoplasm.

2.2 Higher magnification of inflamed gallbladder mucosa. Glandular covering epithelium (white arrow) and dilated capillaries (orange arrow).

2.3 Microvascular changes during the inflammatory process. Red blood cells in the centre of the vessels’ lumen (orange arrows).Margination, rolling and attachment of white blood cells [neutrophils (purple arrows) and mononuclear (blue arrows)] to the activated endothelial cells (green arrows). Transendothelial migration to the lamina propria and formation of the inflammatory exhudate.

2.4 Organization of the persistent inflammatory exhudate. Formation of inflammatory granulation tissue with newly formed, thin –walled vessels (red arrows).

2.5 Destruction of gallbladder covering mucosal epithelium and acute ulcer formation (black arrows) with a zone of granulation tissue beneath. Remnants of glandular covering epithelium (white arrows).

2.6 Pus formation with many neutrophils (purple arrows) on the surface of the ulcer. Acute ulcer .

2.7 Cells of acute inflammation (ie, neutrophils with their lobulated nuclei, purple arrows) under higher magnification.

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